Updated November 19 2017 – complete journey from cutting to flowers, fruit harvest, after harvest and other observations! These plants continue to surprise while gifting us knowledge and food!
How it all begun 🙂
October 17 2015 – I came across this post by Eddie Chua in our Facebook group, “SG Farming in Apartments” about his Goji stem cutting that has rooted in water.
As my mother loves Goji berries, I love to grow my own for her. In addition, there was not enough information online about how they grew and I wanted to find out by growing them myself.
Goji Berries and Kau Kee Chai (Photo: CN Herb)
There are 2 ways to grow this hardy perennial plant.
- By Seeds : Angie Wong, a member at Singapore Urban Gardening group (Facebook), shared how she germinated from Eu Yang Sang’s dried berries. Taken from the fridge, these were cut open for the seeds inside, and sowed directly on wet tissues.
Angie Wong chose the plumpest ones from Eu Yang Sang’s dried berries.
Angie Wong – 6 days to germinate. These seedlings were 9 days old
- By Stem Cutting ( Eddie’s instructions : strip the stem of big leaves, cut the stem down and soak in water until roots appear)
For this Wolfberry/ Goji berry or Kau Kee trials, I begged Regina Fok who lived in USA, to share her observations with me . 🙂 I wanted to see if winter chill is a factor required for this plant to bear berries. And hence, our rooting trials began in 2 countries in 2015.
Regina Fok’s Goji Berry Plant began in October 2015, in USA –
Oct 2015 – Regina Fok’s goji berry stems rooting in water
Regina Fok ‘s stem cutting has rooted in water
After her stem cuttings rooted in water, Regina Fok planted them in soil and they over wintered indoor in pots. The plants did not faced the full elements of winter as young plants.
May 10 2016 – Roots have outgrew the pot over the winter
May 2016 – Regina Fok’s cutting planted in the ground once spring arrived!
Gojiberries, Wolfberries flower buds seen on Regina’s plant (USA)
June 4 2016 – Regina’s plant flowered once its in the ground!
October 2016 – Regina’s plants bore fruits!
Nov 11 2016 – Vigorous grower!
Nov 12 2016 – Not the first harvest!
Regina Fok’s plants did not need much care. In fact, she almost forgotten about these plants in her garden, until she chanced upon them in October 2016, while clearing her garden for winter. For all her neglect, she was surprised to see the plants had grown well and even fruiting without adding fertilizers!
Minimum care for hardy wolfberries plants!
How wolfberries grow on plants!
My wolfberry plants’ journey began on December 26 2015 in Singapore –
Trimmed off Kau Kee (wet market in Toa Payoh) leaves and cut the stems shorter before rooting in water
Jan 6 2016 – Kau Kee /Goji berry/ Wolfberry cutting rooted in water (11days)
I learned from gardeners in Singapore that this plant can be planted in soil directly without roots, and decided to do a comparative study on how having roots affect a plant’s growth.
Plants with more roots mass will grow faster (PlantB)
Feb 10 2016 – Plant A
Feb 10 2016 – Plant B had more leaves and was taller
Conclusion – For any stem cutting that had “rooted”, it is best to plant in soil when there were good “roots mass” seen. This basically mean a lot of white new roots in layman terms! 🙂 These plants would be stronger in faster time when they are planted in soil than those with less roots.
What happened when we just cut stems and plant in soil without roots?
Stems cutting planted without roots did not have as many leaves as Plant A and B. Planted much earlier than A & B but still lagging behind in growth!
How flowers start their journey ! The dates are not in sequence as flowers bloom at the same time on both plants but hopefully the pictures demonstrated how they formed. No commercial fertilizer were used to encourage flowering. These plants were grown in our own natural compost from recycled kitchen green waste! 🙂
October 30 2016 – First flower bud seen
Dec 04 2016 – More buds on the way
Feb 01 2017 – Flowers and berries
Jan 10 2017 – Lots of flowers but berries are still green
Feb 28 2017
Flowers formed in clusters the older the plants grew (August 04 2017)
Dec 10 2016 – Isn’t this cute? Just before the flower bloom fully.
Feb 17 2017
Dec 12 2016 – more flowers bloom at the same time
November 11 2016 – Flower coming out from bud.
SG Kau Kee Flowers – Do they look the same as Regina’s USA wolfberries flowers?
Dec 12 2016 – Not the same shade of purple in the flowers
Jan 11 2017
After the flower bloom, the petals turned dried and dropped off
February 25 2017 – Fruiting begin
Flowers and fruits on its own without much human aid. These are very hardy plants, drought resistant and did not need fertilizer.
Wolfberries began fruiting journey!
Jan 27 2017 – Small green berries first after flowers self pollinated
March 24 2017 – It took about 4 months from green berries stage to fully ripen red state.
February 28 2017 – Vigorous fruiting, heat tolerant
A green berry gaining weight finally! Hopefully they turned red soon
Jan 19 2017
Jan 31 2017 – Slowly but surely, the berries are turning red (been 5 months since it was a small berry)
Feb 18 2017 – Fresh Wolfberry is Juicy! 🙂
Feb 01 2017 – Gifted my mom with the first berry.
Seeds Journey – our seeds were harvested from our plants and sowed on February 18 2017. Out of 3 seeds from above fruit, only two germinated on February 28 (10 days) . Another learning opportunity has began!
Feb 18 2017 – Sowing seeds from our fresh wolfberry
February 28 2017 – Germinated !!
March 1 2017 – hopefully a strong plant
Length of germinated seed is about 2 cm. Roots had not emerged.
March 26 2017 – 2 days to 1 month old seedling!
June 04 2017 – seedling grows very fast
June 04 2017 – Seedling planted in outdoor garden
Difference between leaf and flowers buds –
Leaf buds are thicker and usually formed at the tip of the stem. Whereas Flowers buds are smaller and formed at the joint between developed leaves (see below).
Flowers bud (Feb 2017)
As small flowers buds matured, they became swollen and a tint of purple showed.
Hint of purple
What happened after fruiting?
Leaves will drop until the whole plant was devoid of leaves. Some fruits still remained until they too dried on the stem and dropped as well. This is how the plant looked after fruiting is done.
They remained in this dormant stage for 3 months.
When the plants revived from dormant stage, another observation were made on –
- un-pruned (did not trimmed dry stems, left bare stems on)
- pruned (cut away dry stems) plants
To my surprise, the one with stems un-pruned grew flowers first, straight from bare and dry stems! For both pots, I added only compost from my bins and mulched with dried leaves as usual.
2017 Nov 18 new flower out of bare stem
- Flower buds were spotted first on the un-pruned plant. Tip – Keep the bare stems! Don’t prune them, continue to feed the soil!
Nov 17 2017 – plants awakening
Nov 18 2017 – Flower bud seen from bare stem
Nov 17 2017 – Flower buds appeared from bare stem
Nov 20 2017 – Flower bloom
On bare dry stems (un-pruned), it can re-grow this way as well. New shoots grew straight from wooden stems. Thus, this plant will be taller. Tip – Need support, grow near wall or fence.
June 10 2017 – New growth on the woody stem
2) On pruned plant, where bare stems were trimmed, new shoots grew first. Flowers were slower to show. This plant had more leaves than the un-pruned plant.
Pruned plant re-grew shoots
No thorns on new shoots
Flowers buds showed later than plants with bare stems intact
Pruned plant grew new shoots and have more leaves, thus they looked lush compared to the bare/untrimmed plant on the left. However, its the latter that will show flowers first!
Unpruned (left) vs Pruned plant (right)
Reflection on parent plants’ journey in 2015 – Looking back now I was amazed by how much the plants grow ! The cuttings showed roots after 11 days, on January 06 2016 (started on December 26 2015) . These were how they looked on the first day of being planted, a short stalk with few leaves! Tip – Need to be individually potted in wide and deep pot or best grounded!
January 13 2016 – Journey to find answers began!
Nov 11 2016 – Pruned it often to encourage a bushier growth
Dec 04 2016 – DIY a steel cage to support the plant, else the stems keep flopping to the ground
Jan 31 2017 – Plant B , tied long stems to the steel frame
Jan 20 2017 – This steel frame work well to support the plant
Jan 17 2017 – Plant A, slower to flower
The more the plants are pruned, meaning cutting away stems while harvesting for leaves, they get bushier. These plants gave me lots of leaves for cooking as I grew them.
2016 December 02
Feb 17 2017 – Plants are grown in own compost from kitchen green waste and dried leaves.
Neglect may be the key to get it to flower, meaning don’t harvest as often when its near the one year mark. Let the stems get woody. These plants are best grown in the ground, but if this is not possible, in the biggest pot you can find. 🙂
CONCLUSION – KAU KEE is wolfberry.
It took 10 months from cutting to see flowers.
5 months from successful (natural) pollination to full red berry stage.
The taste of fresh wolfberry is medicinal and texture is seedy. 🙂
The Berries of Goji and Kau Kee Plants:
Both the berries and the leaves are edible.
It is considered a good herb for improving eye sight .
The berries are often sold in dried form like these :
March 7 – Annie Lim from Perth, Australia, shared picture of fresh goji berries from her garden
Annie Lim from Perth, Australia, said her Goji berry plant grew like weeds in her garden. They are about a meter high and potted instead of in the ground. Some support would be required when there are fruits, otherwise they will bend over. This is a hardy plant, no matter how much was pruned, this plant would rebound even more.
This plant is hardy as it can tolerates winter temperature, summer heat and drought condition. It is also a native plant of Tibet.
Fresh everlasting wolfberries on tree:
This is what Gojiberries and wolfberries tree look like! Thanks to Ms. Peck (USA), I finally get to see one
Potted Gojiberry plant in Perth Australia (Annie Lim)
Annie Lim also shared that this plant loved the sun and should be able to thrive in Singapore.
How to prepare Gojiberry/ Wolfberry/ Kau Kee stems for Propagating –
- Stripped off leaves and mind the thorns while handling this stem
- Trim down the length of the stem
- Place stems in water until roots appeared (In Singapore’s experiment, about 11 days)
Regina Fok preparing her Goji berry stems for propagation
The leaves are sold in supermarkets and Singapore wet markets. It is good to know the Chinese name for this plant : 枸杞菜 (Ms. Wisteria Lesley ,Urban Farmers Singapore, November 5 2015, said the proper name of this vegetables is this. Package one was wrongly typed ! )
Goji berry stems in Singapore are sold like this or fresh stem cutting in markets. People used the leaves for soup
The leaves are often cooked as a nourishing soup with pork and beaten egg :
The leaves have a smooth silky texture after its cooked.
Ms. Regina Fok, who is based in USA and I will be sharing our data on this progress.
It would be interesting to find out if winter is a factor in producing berries for this plant.
Answer one year later (2016) – Winter is not a factor for flowers ! 🙂
- Full Sun
- Water well during hot weather and after transplant
- 10 – 12 inches soil depth
- Wide pot to give its roots some room, but best in ground with compost.
- Matured plant is 8 to 10 feet tall